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Spanish flu pandemic
Le terme Spanish flu pandemic est cité dans le Wikipedia de langue anglaise. Il est défini comme suit:

The 1918 flu pandemic (January 1918 – December 1920) was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic, the first of the two pandemics involving H1N1 influenza virus (the second being the 2009 flu pandemic). It infected 500 million people across the world, including remote Pacific islands and the Arctic, and killed 50 to 100 million of them—three to five percent of the world's population —making it one of the deadliest natural disasters in human history. To maintain morale, wartime censors minimized early reports of illness and mortality in Germany, Britain, France, and the United States; but papers were free to report the epidemic's effects in neutral Spain (such as the grave illness of King Alfonso XIII), creating a false impression of Spain as especially hard hit— thus the pandemic's nickname Spanish flu.
Most influenza outbreaks disproportionately kill juvenile, elderly, or already weakened patients; in contrast the 1918 pandemic killed predominantly previously healthy young adults. Modern research, using virus taken from the bodies of frozen victims, has concluded that the virus kills through a cytokine storm (overreaction of the body's immune system). The strong immune reactions of young adults ravaged the body, whereas the weaker immune systems of children and middle-aged adults resulted in fewer deaths among those groups.
Historical and epidemiological data are inadequate to identify the pandemic's geographic origin. It was implicated in the outbreak of encephalitis lethargica in the 1920s.

Ceci est un extrait de l'article Spanish flu pandemic de l'encyclopédie libre Wikipedia. La liste des auteurs est disponible sur Wikipedia.
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Grippe de 1918 — Wikipédia
en )Britain and the 1918-19 Influenza Pandemic: A Dark Epilogue, par Niall ... The devastating effect of the Spanish flu in the city of Philadelphia, PA, USA ...
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grippe_de_1918
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1918 flu pandemic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The 1918 flu pandemic (January 1918 – December 1920) was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic, the first of the two pandemics involving H1N1 influenza ...
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1918_flu_pandemic
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The 1918 Influenza Pandemic - virus
The influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 killed more people than the Great War, known ... Known as "Spanish Flu" or "La Grippe" the influenza of 1918-1919 was a ...
virus.stanford.edu/uda/
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1918 Spanish Flu Pandemic - 20th Century History - About.com
Historical Importance of the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic: In three waves, the Spanish flu spread quickly, killing an estimated 50 million to 100 million people ...
history1900s.about.com/od/1910s/p/spanishflu.htm
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The Influenza Epidemic of 1918
Hard as it is to believe, the answer is true. World War I claimed an estimated 16 million lives. The influenza epidemic that swept the world in 1918 killed an ...
www.archives.gov/exhibits/influenza-epidemic/
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1918 Influenza: the Mother of All Pandemics - Centers for Disease ...
The “Spanish” influenza pandemic of 1918–1919, which caused ≈50 million deaths worldwide, remains an ominous warning to public health. Many questions  ...
wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/12/1/pdfs/05-0979.pdf
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1918 Flu Pandemic That Killed 50 Million Originated in China ...
23 Jan 2014 ... The deadly "Spanish flu" claimed more lives than World War I, which ended the same year the pandemic struck. Now, new research is placing ...
news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/01/140123-spanish-flu-1918-china-origins-pandemic-science-health/
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The Great pandemic :: The United States in 1918-1919 ... - Flu.gov
The Influenza Pandemic occurred in three waves in the United States throughout 1918 and 1919. Learn more about the pandemic, along with the Nation's health ...
www.flu.gov/pandemic/history/1918/
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1918 Flu Pandemic - Facts & Summary - HISTORY.com
Find out more about the history of 1918 Flu Pandemic, including videos, interesting articles, pictures, historical features and more. Get all the facts on ...
www.history.com/topics/1918-flu-pandemic
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The war was over - but Spanish Flu would kill millions more ...
11 Nov 2009 ... On Armistice Day 1918 Britain was in the grip of Spanish Flu, which could kill ... Just as the current flu epidemic seems to have concentrated on ...
www.telegraph.co.uk/health/6542203/The-war-was-over-but-Spanish-Flu-would-kill-millions-more.html
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Spanish flu pandemic en science
The 1918 Influenza Pandemic - virus
More people died of influenza in a single year than in four-years of the Black Death Bubonic Plague from 1347 to 1351. Known as "Spanish Flu" or "La Grippe"  ...
Spanish - Open Collections Program - Harvard University
The Spanish influenza pandemic, which began in 1918, caught every nation by surprise. It infected an estimated 500 million people and killed 50 to 100 million ...
1918 flu pandemic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The origin of the Spanish flu pandemic, and the relationship ... of the University of Wisconsin linked the presence of three ...
Baylor University || Living Stories || 1918 Spanish Flu Pandemic
Living Stories Spot #42: 1918 Spanish flu pandemic Original Airdate: June 21 ( 2011). This is Living Stories, featuring voices from the collections of the Baylor ...
The 'Spanish' Influenza pandemic and its relation to World War I ...
2 Sep 2012 ... The 'Spanish' Influenza pandemic and its relation to World War I ... Ken Kahn is a senior researcher at the University of Oxford IT Services ...
Influenza ("Spanish Flu" Pandemic, 1918-19) | Encyclopedia of ...
The United States had faced flu pandemic before, in 1889-90 for example, but ... the Henry Phipps Institute at the University of Pennsylvania had determined the ...
Philadelphia, Nurses, and the Spanish Influenza Pandemic of 1918
The Spanish Influenza of 1918 was the greatest, most lethal pandemic the world has ever ... By 4 October the University of Pennsylvania's newspaper The Daily ...
1918 Flu Pandemic That Killed 50 Million Originated in China ...
23 Jan 2014 ... The deadly "Spanish flu" claimed more lives than World War I, which ended ... Historian Mark Humphries of Canada's Memorial University of ...
Americas Forgotten Pandemic Influenza 1918 2nd Edition ...
Yet, the Spanish flu pandemic is largely forgotten today. ... History and Geography at the University of Texas at Austin, where he taught for over 20 years .
[PDF]The Influenza Pandemic, 1918 — 1919 - The University of Sydney
18. Record 2009. The Influenza Pandemic, 1918 — 1919. Nyree Morrison. In light of the current Swine Flu pandemic, it is interesting to look back at how an ...
Livres sur le terme Spanish flu pandemic
Spanish Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919
Spanish Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919
David Killingray, Howard Phillips, 2003
On a global, multidisciplinary scale, the book seeks to apply the insights of a wide range of social and medical sciences to an investigation of the pandemic.
Pandemic: Spanish Flu, 1918
Pandemic: Spanish Flu, 1918
Sally Stone, 2012
World War I is finally drawing to an end, and 11-year old Freda Stone is looking forward to the return of her brother Bobby from the Western Front.
Pandemic 1918: Canada and the Spanish Influenza
Pandemic 1918: Canada and the Spanish Influenza
Prescott North, 2012
In the early 20th century, inhabitants of the world found themselves surrounded by war and disease. Tens of millions perished in the fighting of World War I, but the Spanish Influenza virus killed tens of millions more. In Canada, the death toll is estimated at around 50 000 lives lost to the virus that is still a mystery today.
The Spanish Flu: Narrative and Cultural Identity in Spain, 1918
The Spanish Flu: Narrative and Cultural Identity in Spain, 1918
Ryan A. Davis, 2013
33. 34. 36. 41. 42. 44. 30. Phillipsand Killingray,The Spanish Influenza Pandemic , 5. 31. BeatrizEcheverri Dávila,“Spanish Influenza Seen from Spain,” in ibid., The Spanish Influenza Pandemic, 177–78. Ibid., 181–82. Ibid.,178, 181. Ibid.,181.
Coulson's Wife
Coulson's Wife
Anna J. McIntyre et Elizabeth Mackey, 2014
The beginning of the Coulson Empire, 1918: Mary Ellen’s father didn’t trade her for a house–exactly. Marrying the wealthy and handsome Randall Coulson is not something Mary Ellen wants to do, but being the obedient daughter she agrees to the marriage. Randall Coulson wants Mary Ellen for one reason–to give him sons. He has no desire to form a bond ...
The Global Economic and Financial Impact of an Avian Flu ...
The Global Economic and Financial Impact of an Avian Flu ...
International Monetary Fund, 2006
The 1918 Spanish Flu The Spanish flu of 1918-19 was by far the most lethal influenza pandemic of the 20th century. According to WHO estimates, it infected about one-quarter of the global population and took the lives of more than 40 million ...
The Complete Lynchcliffe Chronicles Trilogy.
The Complete Lynchcliffe Chronicles Trilogy.
Melanie Dent, 2012
WARNING: NOT SUITABLE FOR PERSOSN BELOW 18 OWING TO ADULT CONTENT OF A SEXUAL NATURE AND DISCUSSION OF ADULT THEMES.It began with the tragic death of a new mother in autumn 1891 and led to passion and discovery following the tragedy of RMS Titanic. Then a murder threatens to destroy the stability of the noble Lynchcliffe household as the family and...
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Spanish flu pandemic
1918 Flu Pandemic That Killed 50 Million Originated in China, Historians Say
The worldwide flu pandemic that killed 50 million people in 1918 may have originated with transported Chinese laborers, archival records suggest.
news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/01/140123-spanish-flu-1918-china-origins-pandemic-science-health/
Spanish Influenza Pandemic and Vaccines — History of Vaccines
www.historyofvaccines.org/content/blog/spanish-influenza-pandemic-and-vaccines
1918 flu pandemic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1918_flu_pandemic
The 1918 Flu Pandemic or Spanish Flu
In 1918 much of the world was at war. The world would soon come under siege by something much smaller and deadlier than enemy forces. More people would die because of this this small invader than were killed during the entire first world war. Between 1918-...
comfortdoc.squidoo.com/spanish-flu
Spanish flu, the pandemic that killed 50 million, started in China — but may have spread via Canada, historian says | National Post
The flu appears to have originated in China before spreading via trainloads of labourers passing through Canada to Europe, Humphries argues
news.nationalpost.com/2014/02/04/spanish-flu-the-pandemic-that-killed-50-million-started-in-china-but-may-have-spread-via-canada-historian-says/
H1N1 shares key similar structures to 1918 flu, providing research avenues for better vaccines | Observations, Scientific American Blog Network
blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/2010/03/24/h1n1-shares-key-similar-structures-to-1918-flu-providing-research-avenues-for-better-vaccines/
Mystery of the 1918 "Spanish Flu" Pandemic: Solved!
MIT researchers have explained why two mutations in the H1N1 avian flu virus were critical for viral transmission in humans during the 1918 pandemic outbreak that killed at least 50 million people -believed more than that taken by the Black...
www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblog/2009/07/solving-the-mystery-of-the-1918-spanish-flu-pandemic.html
The 1918 Spanish Influenza Epidemic Was Caused By Vaccinations! « Socio-Economics History Blog
Vaccines don't cause disease right? Totally wrong! They do cause diseases. There are many researchers who say that the 1918 Spanish flu was caused by vaccines! Eleanora McBean Ph.D., N.D. writes in her book, Swine Flu Expose : As has been stated before, all medical and non-medical authorities on vaccination agree that vaccines are designed…
socioecohistory.wordpress.com/2009/09/03/the-1918-spanish-influenza-epidemic-was-caused-by-vaccinations/
Past Times - The Spanish Flu Pandemic strikes home | newsobserver.com blogs
blogs.newsobserver.com/pasttimes/the-spanish-flu-pandemic
Influenza 1918 . American Experience . WGBH | PBS
Early in the morning of March 11, 1918, a young private reported to the Army hospital at Fort Riley, Kansas, complaining of fever, sore throat, and headache. Then, another sick soldier appeared, then another and another. By noon, the hospital had more than one hundred cases; in a week, there were five hundred. Forty-eight soldiers died at Fort Riley that spring. No one knew why. _Influenza 1918_ is the story of the worst epidemic the United States has ever known. Before it was over, the flu would kill more than 600,000 Americans -- more than all the combat deaths of this century combined. "For the survivors we spoke to," says producer Robert Kenner, "the memory is one of horror and fear -- which may explain why many Americans were willing to let those few terrible months fade into obscurity. Schoolchildren know more about the Black Plague from centuries ago than they do about this episode in our recent history." America in 1918 was a nation at war. Draft call-ups, bond drives, troop shipments were all in high gear when the flu epidemic appeared. American soldiers from Fort Riley carried the disease to the trenches of Europe, where it mutated into a killer virus. The disease would later be dubbed, inaccurately, Spanish influenza. Spain had suffered from a devastating outbreak of influenza in May and June of 1918. The country, being a non-combatant in the war, did not censor news of the epidemic that was cutting through its population and was therefore incorrectly identified as its place of origin. Meanwhile, returning American troops were bringing the flu back home. First hundreds, then thousands, of soldiers were lining up outside infirmaries and hospitals at army bases across the country, falling ill with a swiftness that defied belief. Dr. Victor Vaughan, Surgeon General of the Army, was stunned by "what he saw at Camp Devens":http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/influenza/storyHighlights just outside of Boston. "Every bed is full, yet others crowd in," he wrote. "The faces wear a bluish cast; a cough brings up the blood-stained sputum. In the morning, the dead bodies are stacked about the morgue like cordwood." On the day Vaughan arrived, sixty-three men died at Camp Devens. In September, the disease spread to the civilian population. It moved swiftly down the eastern seaboard to New York, "Philadelphia":http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/ influenza/storyHighlights and beyond. Anna Milani remembers sitting on her front step one day: "Diagonally across from us a fifteen-year-old girl was just buried. Toward evening, we heard a lot of screaming going on. In that same house, a little eighteen-month-old baby passed away." That month, 12,000 Americans died of influenza. It was a flu unlike any other. People could be healthy in the morning and dead by nightfall. Others died more slowly, suffocating from the buildup of liquid in their lungs. Thanks to advances in microbiology, researchers had developed vaccines for many bacterial diseases: smallpox, anthrax, rabies, diphtheria, meningitis. But doctors were helpless to stop the influenza of 1918. Though they knew the disease spread through the air, medical researchers were unable to see the tiny virus through microscopes of the time and incorrectly identified its cause as a bacteria. Vaccines they developed didn't work; the virus was too small, too elusive. With medical science powerless, many people turned to folk remedies: garlic, camphor balls, kerosene on sugar, boneset tea. Public health officials distributed masks, closed schools; laws forbade spitting on the streets. Nothing worked. And the war was at cross-purposes with the epidemic: the war effort brought people into the streets for rallies and bond drives. They coughed on each other, infected each other. Soldiers traveled in crowded transport ships. The disease spread everywhere. October saw the epidemic's full horror: more than 195,000 people died in America alone. There was a nationwide shortage of caskets. In Philadelphia, the dead were left in gutters and stacked in caskets on the front porches. Trucks drove the city streets, picking up the caskets and corpses. People hid indoors, afraid to interact with their friends and neighbors. "Everybody was living in deadly fear because it was so quick, so sudden, and so terrifying," says William Sardo, the son of a funeral director whose home was stacked with caskets of flu victims. "It destroyed the intimacy that existed among people." Surgeon General Vaughan reached a frightening conclusion. "If the epidemic continues its mathematical rate of acceleration," he announced, "civilization could easily disappear from the face of the earth within a few weeks." Then, just as suddenly as it struck, the calamitous disease abruptly began to vanish. By mid-November, the numbers of dead were plunging. "In light of our knowledge of influenza," says "Dr. Shirley Fannin":http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/, a Los Angeles County public health official, "we do understand that it probably ran out of fuel. It ran out of people who were susceptible and could be infected." Over time, World War I and painful memories associated with the epidemic caused it to be mostly forgotten. But for the survivors, the influenza of 1918 changed their lives forever.
www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/films/influenza/
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